Technologies Developed by NRCM

Patents (Title, filing status)


Name of the Institute

Application/ Registration No

Name of Innovation/ Technology/Products/Verities

Date of Filling/ Registration



ICAR- NRC on Mithun


A method for bio-preservation of mithun hides


Granted on



A method for processing rabbit pelts and fur




An energy-efficient post tanning process for mithun hides




A novel method of chrome tannage of mithun hides with Glyoxalic Acid




An improved method for chrome Tanning mithun hides




A process of making leather without any large machinery




A method of removal of chromium from chrome liquor obtained after processing of mithun hides




A method of processing rabbit fur on leather




ICAR- NRC on Mithun


µLEDER, (class 18) Leather product: jacket, shoes, wallet, handbags, suitcase, belt, and key ring




µthimin (class 5), mineral Mixture




µeef (class 29), Meat of mithun




µlk (class 29), Lassi, barfi, rasgulla, paneer




µyum (class 29), Meat patties, smoke meat, meat sauces, meat block, seasoned dried mithun meat




Logo of mithun head (class 5, 18, 29)




NRCM (class 5, 18, 29)



Release technology

  1. Area-Specific mineral mixture for mithun
  2. Low cost high Nutritious feed block for mithun

Technologies/methodologies developed & available and success stories

  1. A method of removal of chromium from chrome liquor obtained after processing of mithun hides

    A method of removal of chromium from chrome liquor obtained after processing of mithun hides comprising: collecting the exhausted soak liquor and spent chrome liquor in two separate tanks, subjecting the two said liquor to the step or pumping in a specific ratio, refluxing the pumped mixture of liquor for 20-30 minutes, filtrating the refluxed mixture to separate the precipitate; recycling the clear supernatant liquid back to the tanning process.

  2. An improved method for chrome Tanning mithun hides

    An improved method for chrome tanning of mithun hides comprising; subjecting the mithun hides and skin to the step of soaking in a bath coating; wetting agent and depilatory agent; liming the soaked skin and hides in slaked lime and sodium sulfide; subjecting the lime pelt to the step of fleshing; tanning the fleshed pelts with basic chrome sulfate.

  3. A novel method of chrome tannage of mithun hides with Glyoxalic Acid

    According to this invention, there is provided with a novel method for the chrome tannage of mithun hides with Glyoxalic acid comprising the steps of treating the bricked mithun hides with Glyoxalic acid, and then subjecting the Glyoxalic treated hides to the steps of chrome tannage.

  4. An energy-efficient post tanning process for mithun hides

    An energy-efficient post tanning process for mithun hides comprising the steps of subjecting the raw material to the step of rehydration; neutralizing & retaining the rehydrated product; dyeing the product and subjecting the dyed product to the steps of fatliquoring.

  5. A method for bio-preservation of mithun hides

    A method for bio-preservation of mithun hides comprising treating the mithun hides and skin with a formulation at 32-35°C in a plastic vessel; subjecting the vessels to the step of agitation every hour for a few features; removing the hair from the skin after incubation period; washing the hide or skin subjecting the washed hide or skin to the step of rehydration.

  6. A method for processing rabbit pelts and fur

    A method for processing rabbit fur comprising: cleaning and cooling the rabbit pelts; soaking the cleansed and cool rabbit pelt into the first tanning solution with stirring for about 48 hrs at room temperature; subjecting the pelts tanned with brine to the step of squeezing to resolve the excess brine; fleshing the pelt to remove the flesh and fatty tissue; soaking the fleshed pelts in the second tanning solution with straining for 4 to 7 days; drying and fluffing the fully tanned pelt.

  7. A process of making leather without any large machinery

    A method of making leather from mithun hides comprising: soaking the mithun hides in µ Pre Tan dispersing agent, treating the soaked hides with µ Tan 1, µ Tan II and µ Tan III paste respectively, subjecting the leathers to the step of drying and brushing, and analyzing the amount of moisture and chrome in the leather.

  8. A method of processing rabbit fur on leather

    A method of processing rabbit fur on leather comprising: drying the rabbit hides in Sun, applying a formulated paste in the 1st step on the dried rabbit hides by soaking the hides in the formulation, subjecting the hide to the 2nd step of treatment, applying in Tan I paste in the 3rd step on the flesh side of the hide and kept overnight, applying in Tan II paste to top the flesh side of the flesh, and kept for several hours, applying in Tan III paste and kept for about 5 hours.

  9. Feed blocks: preparation of low-cost nutritious feed blocks for mithun

    Complete feed block developed for better growth and production reduced dustiness, improved palatability as well as digestibility of nutrients, thereby increasing the productivity in mithun for higher income. The feed blocks were made from locally available feed ingredients. Three leaves, straw and concentrate feed were mixed and pressed by using a feed block making machine. Similarly, feed blocks were also made from paddy straw and spent gains (a breweries industry by-product) with high moisture content (75-80%). Simultaneously, methods have also been developed for drying high moisture content by-products (spent grain/fodders more efficiently during the rainy season). Performance of mithun was found to be good with average daily growth (ADG) of 500 g in tree leaves-based feed blocks and 553.6 g from spent grain-based feed blocks as against ADG of 396.2 g in control feeding.

  10. Mineral Mixture: Feeding of Area specific mineral mixture

    The content of minerals varies from region to region due to several reasons. In mithun inhabited areas, the mineral content of many tree leaves is on the higher side, which used to cause an improper proportion of minerals in their diet. Further, the minerals are liable to form bonds and interact with more than one nutrient. This reduces their bioavailability. Therefore, there is substantial micronutrient deficiency in Mithuns as evidenced from analysis of blood plasma Mithun.

  11. Standardization of semen preservation and artificial insemination in Mithun

    Improvement of the production performance of mithun, it is required to breed females with the semen of the bulls of superior genetic merits. This can be achieved easily through artificial insemination (AI) with preserved semen. Considering the importance of it, different methods have been standardized for semen preservation and AI in mithun. Mithun semen could be preserved successfully at 4°C (liquid semen) and keeping quality of the preserved semen was found to be good for approximately 2 days. Mithun semen could be successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) using tris-egg yolk-glycerol or citrate–egg yolk–glycerol diluent. It was observed that 5% glycerol concentration in the diluent was suitable for preserving semen in liquid semen. Moreover, the sperm quality was found much better (approximately 23-25% increase in progressive motility and count of live sperm with intact acrosome) when 5% glycerol was added in split doses compared to a single dose. It was also observed that for cryopreserving mithun semen, the tris-egg yolk-glycerol diluent is better than the citrate-egg yolk- glycerol diluent. The scientist could successfully produce mithun calves through AI using liquid and cryopreserved mithun semen both at farm and field levels.

  12. Estrus synchronization

    Estrus synchronization is the manipulation of the reproductive process so that females can be bred with normal fertility during a short and predefined interval. It facilitates breeding in two important ways: it reduces and in some cases eliminates the labour of detecting estrus and it allows the producers to schedule the breeding. Considering the importance of synchronization of estrus in mithun, estrus synchronization protocols for timed AI in mithun have been developed using PGF2α, GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH (Ovsynch), and controlled intravaginal drug (progesterone) releasing device (CIDR).
    After developing these protocols in mithun, in the next step, we went for fixed-time artificial insemination following synchronization. Initially, a total of 16 animals have inseminated artificially (AI) with the cryopreserved mithun semen, 12 cows were conceived. These protocols are routinely practised on the institute farm. 

  13. Standardization of embryo transfer protocol in mithun

    Donor and recipient mithun cows were synchronised into estrus by using CIDR. Donor’s cows superovulated at day 10-13 post estrus by using FSH (Folltropin-V-Bovine- 400 mg for 4 consecutive days at two divided doses daily). PGF2α (5 ml) was administered on day 3 of FSH treatment. Flushing was carried out on day 6 of the estrus cycle (considering day 0 = day of estrus) by a non-surgical method using a 2-way Folly’s catheter followed by searching and evaluation of embryo under stereo zoom microscope. Embryos have been recovered from the donor’s animals and were transferred into three recipient animals. Pregnancy was monitored through ultrasonography. The first calf named BHARAT was born on March 27, 2012, and the second calf (PRITHVI), which was born on May 11, 2012. The standardisation of embryo transfer protocol in mithun would help in the conservation and propagation of quality germplasm in all the mithun inhabited areas of the NEH region.

  14. Standardization of cryopreservation protocol for mithun embryos

    After recovery from the donors animal, the embryo was evaluated and washed in DPBS medium followed by embryo equilibration in solution -1 for 5 min (10% glycerol + 0.125M sucrose + 0.125M Dextrose +10%FCS in PBS) and in solution -2 for  5 min (10% glycerol +10% ethylene glycol + 0.25M sucrose +0.25M Dextrose + 10% FCS in PBS). After that embryo was placed in pre-cooled (4°C) vitrification solution (20% glycerol + 20% EG + 0.375M sucrose +0.375M dextrose +10% FCS in PBS). Immediately aspiration of embryos (within 60 sec) in a 0.5 ml French straw loaded with 0.5M sucrose and sealed with PVA powder. The straw was kept on liquid nitrogen vapour for 1 min then plunged into LN2 (-196°C). On the 100th day, the embryo was transferred into a recipient animal and MOHAN, the first mithun calf was born on May 12, 2012, through embryo transfer technology (ETT) from cryopreserved embryos.

  15. Ageing of mithun by dentition

    A dentition pattern of mithun for determination of age under field condition has been established and was found to be different than cattle where the temporary incisors appeared within birth to 3 months of age in mithun compared to within two weeks of age in cattle. Similarly, the eruption of permanent incisors in mithun differed from that of cattle as given in the table.

    Temporary eruption

    Incisor mithun calf

    Cattle calf (Bos indicus)

    Cattle calf (Bos Taurus)


    Birth to 1 week

    Birth to 2 weeks

    Birth (one  pair of central)

    1st and 2nd lateral

    Birth to 1 week

    Birth to 2 weeks

    Within one month


    3 months and above

    Birth to 2 weeks

    Within one month

    Permanent eruption

    Incisors mithun

    Cattle calf (Bos indicus)

    Cattle calf (Bos Taurus)


    22 months to 3 years

    1 ½ to 2 years

    1 ½ to 2 years

    1st lateral

    3 years to 4 years

    2 to 2 ½ years

    2 ½ to 3 years

    2nd lateral

    4 years to 6 years

    3 years

    3 ¼ to 4 years


    6 years and above

    3 ½ to 4 years

    4 to 4 ½ years


  16. Creating awareness among the mithun rearers/owners through Extension/TSP programmes

    Awareness was created among the mithun farmers/ rearers/owners about the different aspects of mithun management. In health aspect, creation of awareness about the various diseases that affect the mithun, various zoonotic diseases, inter and intra spread of infections, awareness about the importance of vaccination, deworming and its schedule, handling of infected and dead animals, first aid treatment for animals infected at the time of the outbreak, regular lectures or training on health management of mithun. In animal reproduction and physiology, awareness about the importance of heat detection, semen collection, preservation, artificial insemination, various reproductive health problems & diseases, multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology and estrus synchronization. Moreover, regularly conduction of lectures cum practical training, mass reproductive health check-up. The information related to the nutrition-related like preparation of low-cost nutritious feed blocks and feeding of area-specific mineral mixture for mithun and other related livestock species in the NEH region. In animal genetics and breeding aspect, various types of the breeding programme, ways in which to prevent the inbreeding depression, selection of male and female for a breeding programme, etc. Preparation of various leather, meat and milk products from mithun were explained and demonstrated.

  17. Semi-intensive mithun farming

    It is traditionally believed that mithun, a unique domesticated animal of the North-Eastern hilly region, can be reared only under a free-range forest rearing system. But with the decreasing forest coverage in the region, it is imperative to find an alternative rearing system. The package of practices for alternative semi-intensive mithun rearing system, developed by the Institute, has already been practised successfully in the Institute’s Mithun Farm. On 30th April 2016, the alternative semi-intensive system of mithun rearing under farmers’ fields at Molvom village of Medziphema block, Dimapur, Nagaland was launched. On this occasion, under Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP), nine mithun cows and one mithun calf were distributed among three farmers of Molvom village.